Saturday, December 3, 2016

6 metode akurat menguatkan serta menambah tanda android yang kecil

tanda itu anggota pertama dari satu buah handphone. tanpa tanda, handphone tidaklah handphone.

ngerti maksudnya?

bila handphone enggak terdapat tanda alias sinyalnya kecil, mekanis enggak dapat di memakai apa-apa dong? bikin sms enggak dapat, telfone enggak dapat, lagi pula bikin internetan.. . justru sulit.

dan jika memakai handphone android biarpun, yang tuturnya handphone cerdas serta hebat konsisten menginginkan tanda yang tangguh buat dapat menikmati segala karakteristik yang dikasihkan.

rugi kan bila fiturnya melimpah tetapi enggak dapat dipakai.

sehingga dari itu, dalam risalah ini aku bakal memberi sebagian panduan akurat gimana metode menguatkan tanda di handphone android saudara.

metode menguatkan tanda

menguatkan tanda android

sesungguhnya, permasalahan tanda itu tercantel pada alat serta provider yang dipakai. perangkatnya baik tetapi provider yang dipakai ada jaringan yang kecil betul serupa aja, tanda pula bakal kecil.

sedemikian itu pula agi pula.. .

.. . jadi, kedua anggota itu mesti sama-sama baik buat dapat memperoleh tanda yang tangguh.

tetapi, gimana bila kedua anggota itu telah baik akan tetapi tanda lagi konsisten kecil?

nah loh, apa yang mesti dijalani?

janganlah hawatir ✋, ini terdapat sebagian panduan yang dapat saudara lakukan buat menguatkan tanda di handphone android saudara.

1. aktifkan balik handphone android

menguatkan tanda android

tanda di handphone android aku kerap sekali luput dengan cara sontak. sedangkan sebelumnya oke-oke aja.

sehabis menanti mengharap sebagian lamban, nyatanya tanda lagi kecil serta belum dapat balik serupa awal. akibatnya aku menguji buat memacu balik handphone android aku.

wow nyatanya tanda jadi tangguh lagi serupa kebanyakan.

kok dapat sedemikian itu?

ini sedikit uraiannya.. .

.. . ketika handphone di aktifkan balik, segala jaringan yang di ambil sebelumnya bakal diputus dengan cara mekanis serta handphone bakal mencari jaringan anyar yang lebih tangguh dari pada sebelumnya.

itulah latar belakang kenapa ketika handphone di aktifkan balik, jaringan bakal tampak balik serupa awal.

jadi, kala android saudara sinyalnya kecil dengan cara sontak serta tanpa latar belakang yang nyata, jika aktifkan balik biar tanda dapat tangguh balik.

alias saudara pula dapat pakailah karakteristik airplan bentuk. fungsinya nyaris serupa atas memacu balik mulanya.

2. set ke bentuk jaringan yang persisnya

di android, terdapat sebagian bentuk jaringan yang ada, ialah:

gsm only
wcdma/hsdpa only
random antara gsm, wcdma/hsdpa
lte only

biar tanda android konsisten tangguh, saudara mesti dapat menentukan jaringan yang ada di kawasan lokasi bercokol saudara.

bila saudara setting jaringan ke lte aja tetapi nyatanya di kawasan lokasi bercokol saudara enggak memanggul jaringan itu, sehingga tanda bakal kecil terlebih enggak tampak serupa sekali.

jadi kesimpulannya, seleksi bentuk jaringan yang persisnya buat dapat memperoleh tanda terkuat yang terdapat di kawasan saudara.

metode ini sesungguhnya nyaris serupa atas metode memacu afiliasi internet di android.

3. alih ke lokasi yang tinggi

rumah aku 2 dek. ketika aku dilantai bawah, tanda di android aku amat kecil. tetapi ketika aku alih ke dek berdasarkan, tanda langsung full.

ini melambangkan bila lokasi tinggi ada ambilan tanda yang lebih baik dari di lokasi yang kecil.

tetapi sesungguhnya enggak dapat disimpulkan serupa itu pula. eksistensi tower jaringan pula berakibat besar akan daya tanda.

walaupun ditempat yang tinggi, bila jauh dari tower jaringan betul serupa aja, tanda tentu bakal kecil.

intinya, alih ke lokasi yang tinggi amat baik buat menguatkan tanda android saudara, tetapi atas memo terdapat minimum satu tower jaringan di kawasan lokasi bercokol saudara.

4. ganti alat serta provider

ini metode menguatkan tanda android yang telah aku periksa di berdasarkan mulanya.

enggak segala handphone android ada hardware modem pendapatan tanda yang bagus. handphone ekonomis kebanyakan memakai hardware yang sekadarnya.

bila saudara kerap sekali kelenyapan tanda dimanapun saudara terletak.. .

.. . ingin di dukuh atau di kota, tanda konsisten kecil, berfaedah terdapat permasalahan atas hardware modem akseptor tanda di handphone android saudara.

bila ini, telah enggak dapat diapa-apakan lagi. saudara mesti menukar handphone android saudara bila ingin ada tanda yang tangguh.

baca pula: metode memacu android yang lemot

buat permasalahan provider, analisa dulu provider mana yang dapat melingkupi jaringan yang lebih bagus di kawasan saudara.

terkadang memakai provider ini sinyalnya tangguh, tetapi dapat pula memakai provider itu sinyalnya kecil.

jadi, analisa dulu mana provider yang persisnya buat jaringan di kawasan saudara. sehabis itu, saudara dapat pastikan provider atas tanda terkuat yang bakal saudara memakai.

6. pakailah etiket penguat tanda

etiket penguat tanda

ok, bila enggak ingin menukar handphone alias provider, enggak permasalahan. saudara dapat pakailah metode menguatkan tanda android yang terakhir ini.

memakai etiket penguat tanda barangkali enggak masuk akal. mana dapat etiket digunakan buat memberdayakan tanda.

mulanya aku pula berfikir serupa itu, tetapi sehabis memandang metode kerjanya aku jadi benar-benar percaya bila etiket itu benar dapat memberdayakan tanda.

ini enggak etiket serupa yang dijual dijalanan betul.. .

.. . etiket penguat tanda ini berlainan, bahannya dibuat dari metal pipih yang fungsinya mendekati atas antena external handphone.

jadi, kala ditempelkan dibelakang handphone, etiket ini bakal mendukung membekuk tanda yang enggak dapat dijangkau oleh handphone itu.

akhirnya tanda handphone android bakal menaik tangguh sehabis ditempeli etiket penguat tanda mulanya.

bila saudara berencana membeli etiket penguat tanda android, sediakan dulu uang sekeliling 25ribu rupiah buat dapat mendapatkannya.

saudara dapat membelinya dengan cara online di lazada.

nah, itulah mulanya sebagian metode menguatkan serta menambah tanda handphone android.

sehabis memakai segala metode diatas, aku benar-benar percaya android saudara enggak bakal kelenyapan tanda lagi serta saudara dapat menikmati segala karakteristik yang dikasihkan oleh android saudara.

bila terdapat pertanyaan, saudara dapat menulisnya di ruang anotasi.

hendaknya mendukung

Tuesday, November 22, 2016

kolon serta rektum; guna serta metode campakkan air besar pada orang

guna penting dari kolon ialah meresap air serta elektrolit dari kimus jadi rupa beku berak serta mengabadikan berak hingga dapat dieksresikan. sekeliling 1500 ml kimus kebanyakan melampaui katub iliosaekal menuju perut muda besar tiap hari.

mayoritas air serta elektrolit dalam kimus ini diserap di dalam kolon, kebanyakan cuma meninggalkan sekeliling 100ml dari larutan yang bakal dieksresikan ke dalam berak. pada modalnya segala ion diserap serta cuma meninggalkan 1 sampai 5 miliequivalen tiap ion natrium serta klorida di dalam berak. mayoritas absorbsi di perut muda besar berlangsung di medio proksimal dari kolon, sehingga bisa dikenal pula kolon absorbsi (absorbing colon). (guyton, 2006)

di dalam perut muda besar enggak berlangsung penghancuran karna enggak ada enzim-enzim penghancuran. akan tetapi, kuman kolon melaksanakan penghancuran akan beberapa fiber serta memakainya buat hajat metabolisme mereka seorang diri.

metode campakkan air besar

peregangan haustra dengan cara lamban memberantakkan isi kolon berkembang berkurang buat bisa membereskan absorbsi sisa larutan serta elektrolit. tiga hingga empat kali satu hari, biasanya sehabis makan berlangsung kenaikan jelas kematian. berlangsung peregangan berbarengan segmen-segmen besar di kolon asenden serta transversum, sehingga dalam sebagian detik berak tersorong sepertiga hingga tiga perempat dari jauh kolon.

baca pula: anatomi serta ilmu jaringan tubuh kolon serta rektum

kontraksi-kontraksi massif yang dikasih julukan aksi agregat (mass movement) ini, mendorong isi kolon ke komponen distal perut muda besar, lokasi isi itu di menyimpan hingga berlangsung defekasi. selagi aksi era di kolon mendorong isi kolon ke dalam rektum berlangsung peregangan rektum yang setelah itu merangsang reseptor cekang di abar-abar rektum serta membawa dampak kontan defekasi.

kontan ini diakibatkan oleh sfingter anus internus (yang terdiri dari otot polos) buat melemas serta rektum bersama kolon sigmoid buat berkontraksi lebih tangguh. bila sfingter ani eksternus (yang terdiri dari otot bagan) pula melemas berlangsung defekasi. karna otot bagan sfingter ani eksternus terletak dibawah pengawasan kesadaran.

peregangan dahulu abar-abar rektum melahirkan perasaan mau campakkan air besar. bila kondisi enggak membolehkan defekasi, defekasi bisa dilindungi atas konsolidasi sfingter anus eksternus dengan cara segaja meskipun berlangsung kontan defekasi. sekresi kolon terdiri dari air mukus alkalis yang fungsinya ialah buat mencegah mukosa perut muda besar dari cedera kimiawi serta mekanis. (sherwood, 2001)

Monday, November 21, 2016

menebak karakter seorang menurut celana jeans

menebak fiil seorang menurut celana jeans – nyaris enggak terdapat satupun anak belia zaman kini yang enggak sempat memakai celana jeans. tidak cuma dapat membikin kamu tampak lebih gaya serta baru, celana jeans pula dapat dipakai buat acara-acara semi-formal.

celana jeans wanita
tetapi apakah kamu ingat kalau celana jeans ada melimpah model serupa; distressed denim, boyfriend jeans, skinny jeans, boot-cut jeans, serta jeggings. akan tetapi beragam alternatif model bersama bagiannya nyatanya pula dapat membuktikan serupa apa fiil penggunanya.

teknik menebak fiil seorang menurut celana jeans
kini ayo anda perhatikan gimana sebagian celana jeans melahirkan fiil seorang lebih jauh. selanjutnya ialah model-model celana jeans terbaru yang kerap anda memakai yang mana bakal melahirkan fiil kamu.

distressed denim jeans
bila kamu seorang yang camar memakai distressed denim, membuktikan kalau diri kamu ada segi buas. segi buas itu kebanyakan enggak diketahui akan tetapi bisa tampak bila-bila saja. tetapi, distressed denim enggak bisa dikenakan buat tiap kedudukan, terpenting buat mendatangi kegiatan absah.

dianjurkan buat mencampurkan celana jeans kamu atas bos mengeluarkan serta perlengkapan buat kegiatan kasual.

boyfriend jeans
tren bagian serta gaya celana yang boyish ini lagi berdeging selagi sebagian durasi. berdasarkan ahli bentuk di new york, kamu yang memakai celana model ini suka berlagak baru, tenang, bendungan merasa enak atas dirinya seorang diri.

dianjurkan buat membandingkan boyfriend jeans kamu atas bos yang lebih girly buat mewujudkan impresi disimilaritas.

skinny jeans
kamu yang suka memakai skinny jeans membuktikan keyakinan diri dalam mengekspos struktur badan. tetapi, skinny jeans lebih sesuai dikenakan buat mereka yang ada struktur badan afiat serta langsing.

dianjurkan buat memakai celana ini atas bos jauh buat menjauhi musibah fashion, serupa celana dalam yang terlihat. jika mencantumkan beberapa pucuk busana buat tampak lebih gaya.

bootcut jeans
boot-cut jeans bisa membikin penggunanya kelihatan aksi. orang yang mengenakan celana berbentuk serupa ini membuktikan dirinya mau tampak gaya, tetapi pula enggak mau amat membuntuti mode.

dianjurkan agar bentuk kelihatan jauh lebih baru, padankan boot-cut jeans cinta kasih kamu atas sepatu serta perlengkapan modern serta funky.

jeggings
jeggings alias lazim dikenal jean-leggings adalah celana super-slim yang menunjukan kepribadian ultra-trendi serta bernyawa belia. tetapi, celana model ini cuma layak dikenakan oleh mereka yang memili badan serta kaki yang langsing. tidak cuma itu, jeggins pula serba-serbi fungsi karna ada akibat serupa memakai tights.

dianjurkan buat membandingkan jeggings kamu atas bos jauh serta berlimpit. selaku dasar kaki, boots sejajar dengkul alias high heels adalah pasangan yang sensual.

begitu mulanya sebagian model celana jeans idola yang lazim anda memakai setiap hari. nyatanya celana jeans dapat menandakan fiil seorang, celana jeans model apakah idola kamu? boleh jadi kamu pula terpikat membaca model celana jeans perempuan serta model celana jeans cowok terbaru 2013.

Monday, July 4, 2016

Mengetahui Pengertian Dan Perbedaan Sinyal Analog Dan Juga Digital

Era globalisasi menuntut setiap orang terbiasa dengan teknologi terutama yang berkaitan dengan komputer dan internet agar setiap orang bisa mendapatkan informasi dengan cepat dan tepat. Saat ini memiliki komputer dan memiliki jaringan internet sudah menjadi kebutuhan yang lumrah meskipun awalnya kebutuhan tersebut terbilang sebagai kebutuhan mewah. Hal tersebut membuat pengetahuan mengenai teknologi yang berkaitan dengan komputer menjadi sangat penting untuk dipelajari. Salah satu pengetahuan yang perlu dipelajari adalah mengenai pengertian dan perbedaan sinyal analog dan juga digital.

Mengetahui tentang pengertian dan perbedaan sinyal analog dan juga digital merupakan hal yang sangat penting karena hal tersebut berkaitan dengan kerja suatu alat dalam hal ini tentunya komputer untuk mengolah informasi. Pengertian dari sinyal analog adalah sebuah sinyal data yang memiliki bentuk gelombang yang kontinyu, yang membawa suatu informasi dengan cara mengubah karakteristik gelombang suatu benda. Sedangkan pengertian sinyal digital adalah sebuah sinyal data yang memiliki besaran 0 sampai 1 dalam biner, data biasanya berbentuk pulsa dan dapat berubah secara tiba-tiba. Sinyal analog membutuhkan dua parameter penting yaitu amplitudo dan frekuensi yang menghasilkan informasi yang berbentuk gelombang sinus. Sinyal digital menggunakan satuan 0 dan 1 yang disebut bit dalam pengiriman data.

Seperti yang telah disebutkan bahwa mengetahui tentang pengertian dan perbedaan sinyal analog dan juga digital sangat penting, Setelah mengetahui pengertian sinyal analog dan sinyal digital maka selanjutnya yang perlu diketahui adalah perbedaan kedua sinyal tersebut yang akan dijabarkan sebagai berikut:

1. Sinyal analog bentuknya gelombang dan sinyal digital berbentuk pulsa serta bisa mengalami perubahan tiba-tiba.

2. Sinyal analog bisa ditransmisikan pada jarak yang jauh tetapi bisa terganggu noise sedangkan sinyal digital hanya bisa ditransmisikan pada jarak dekat namun terbebas dari noise.

3. Sinyal analog memerlukan parameter berupa frekuensi dan amplitudo sedangkan sinyal digital hanya mempunyai keadaan berupa 1 dan 0.

Sinyal analog sulit untuk disimpan sedangkan sinyal digital mudah disimpan dalam berbagai media seperti CD, Flash Disc, dan lain-lain.

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Macam-Macam Manfaat dan Gizi Bayam Untuk Tubuh

Anda tahu bayam? Tentunya anda pasti sudah mengenal sayuran yang satu ini. Bayam kaya akan nutrisi yang tinggi dan terkandung di dalamnya. Bayam juga di percaya sebagai salah satu sayur kekuatan, karena di dalam bayam juga terdapat energy yang tinggi. Manfaat dan gizi bayam untuk tubuh sangat lah banyak terutama untuk kesehatan. Sayur-sayuran yang berwarna hijau di percaya kaya akan nutrisi dan meningkatkan saya tahan tubuh. Kebanyakan daun bayam di manfaatkan untuk menjadi bahan makanan dan di konsumsi, dari daunnya yang untuk lauk makan, di olah menjadi keripik, jus dan makanan serta minuman lainnya.

Bayam juga mengandung vitamin A dan vitamin C di dalamnya, serta nutrisi, protein, karbohidrat dan juga kalsium. Maka dari itu bayam sangat cocok untuk di konsumsi guna menyehatkan tubuh, bayam juga biasanya dicampurkan pada bubur bayi. Adapun beberapa manfaat dan gizi bayam untuk tubuh :

· Dijadikan sebagai sayuran untuk program diet, untuk anda yang sedang dalam proses diet, di anjurkan untuk banyak mengkonsumsi sayuran bayam. Karena bayam mampu membantu dalam pencernaan, sehingga diet yang anda lakukan berjalan dengan maksimal dengan mengkonsumsi bayam.

· Meningkatkan pertahanan atau kekebalan tubuh, karena bayam yang mengandung Vitamin A dan bergizi tinggi, mampu melindungi tubuh dari serangan penyakit dan meningkatkan kekebalan pada tubuh.

· Membantu menyehatkan tulang, manfaat lain dari bayam yaitu membantu menjaga kesehatan pada tulang. Vitamin dan gizi yang tinggi terdapat pada bayam dipercaya mampu menjaga kekuatan pada tulang agar tidak mudah rapuh.

· Membantu menyehatkan mata, bayam kaya akan manfaatnya dalam kesehatan tubuh. Dengan banyak mengkonsumsi bayam juga membantu dalam menjaga kesehatan pada mata.

· Mencegah penyakit kanker, penyakit kanker ternyata bisa di atasi dan di cegah dengan mengkonsumsi bayam. Seperti kanker kulit, kanker rahim dan juga kanker payudara.

· Mengatasi rasa lelah, selain manfaatnya untuk tulang, mata dan organ-organ tubuh lainnya, bayam juga mampu mengatasi rasa lelah akibat pekerjaan yang berat. Banyak mengkonsumsi bayam akan meningkatkan dan mengumpulkan energy-energi di dalam tubuh.

Nah itulah beberapa manfaat dan gizi bayam untuk tubuh, dalam menjaga kesehatan tubuh bayam sangat mempunyai peran penting jika di konsumsi. Perbanyak mengkonsumsi sayur bayam akan memberikan efek yang positif bagi anda. Dalam menjaga kesehatan tubuh anda wajib banyak-banyak memakan sayur-sayuran atau makanan yang mengandung vitamin dan karbohidrat.

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Memilih Model Baju Pesta Muslim Terbaru Untuk Wanita Yang Bagus

Baju pesta memang pada saat ini masih menjadi baju yang paling diminati dan paling banyak mempunyai model. Hal ini karena baju untuk pesta ini mempunyai peran penting yang akan dapat membuat penampilan seorang wanita pada saat menghadiri pesta akan lebih bagus. banyaknya model baju pesta muslim terbaru untuk wanita ini memang dapat Anda pilih sesuai dengan keinginan Anda. namun apabila Anda ingin mempunyai penampilan yang berbeda serta penampilan yang nyaman setiap kali Anda akan menghadiri pesta maka Anda harus mengetahui apa saja yang harus Anda lakukan untuk dapat memilih baju pesta yang bagus tersebut. langkah yang harus Anda ambil atau cara yang harus Anda lakukan ini akan lebih memudahkan Anda untuk memilih baju pesta yang tidak hanya bagus namun juga akan lebih nyaman untuk Anda. maka dari itu penting bagi Anda untuk mengetahui hal tersebut.

Ada beberapa hal yang harus Anda perhatikan pada saat Anda akan memilih model baju pesta muslim terbaru untuk wanita ini agar Anda tidak salah pilih. Hal yang harus Anda perhatikan adalah sebagai berikut:

1. Kualitas dari baju pesta tersebut

Tentu saja Anda harus perhatikan kualitas dari baju pesta yang akan Anda pilih. Kualitas ini akan mempengaruhi penampilan Anda pada saat menghadiri pesta tersebut.

2. Bahan dari baju pesta Anda

Selain kualitas maka pastikan bahan untuk baju pesta Anda adalah menggunakan bahan yang bagus yang akan membuat penampilan lebih nyaman. Bahan yang nyaman akan membuat Anda menikmati acara pesta Anda dengan santai.

3. Sesuaikan dengan kebutuhan pesta Anda

Dan hal terakhir yang harus Anda lakukan pada saat memilih baju untuk pesta adalah Anda harus menyesuaikan baju ini dengan tema pesta yang akan Anda hadiri. Hal ini untuk menghindarkan Anda dari salah dalam memilih kostum.

Itulah beberapa hal yang harus Anda lakukan pada saat memilih model baju pesta muslim terbaru untuk wanita yang bagus dan sesuai dengan tema pesta Anda maupun yang akan membuat Anda lebih nyaman.

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Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Penemuan Tata Surya Baru

Para astronom telah menemukan sebuah sistem bintang yang menyandang kemiripan yang mencolok dengan tata surya batin kita. Ini adalah bintang seperti matahari yang memainkan tuan rumah bagi sistem lima exoplanet kecil - dari ukuran Mercury dengan ukuran Venus.

Tapi ada sesuatu yang sangat asing tentang kompak 'tata surya' ini; itu terbentuk ketika alam semesta hanya 20 persen usia sekarang, membuat menjadikannya sistem bintang bermain tuan rumah yang paling kuno untuk dunia berukuran terestrial ditemukan sampai saat ini.

FOTO: Paling Mengerikan Planet Alien Di Galaxy kami

Sebuah kolaborasi astronom internasional yang belajar pengamatan NASA Kepler Space Telescope selama periode empat tahun, dengan cepat menyadari bahwa Kepler-444 dibentuk sekitar 11,2 miliar tahun yang lalu.

Meskipun Kepler-444 mungkin bisa disamakan dengan versi kuno tata surya kita, dunia mengandung tidak dianggap layak huni dan planet-planet yang astronom telah mengidentifikasi tentu tidak menyerupai Bumi. Mereka mengorbit baik di dalam zona layak huni bintang ini pada jarak hanya 10 persen jarak bahwa Bumi mengorbit matahari.

"Sistem ini menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan planet bisa terjadi dalam kondisi yang sangat berbeda dari yang di mana tata surya kita terbentuk dan memiliki implikasi untuk memperkirakan jumlah planet di galaksi kita, dan galaksi lainnya," kata co-penyidik ​​Sarbani Basu dari Universitas Yale.

BERITA: Rakasa Cincin Sistem Lingkaran Raksasa Alien Planet

Kepler mendeteksi keluarga 5 dunia berbatu dengan menggunakan metode transit - exoplanets mengorbit di depan bintang tuan rumah mereka, menyebabkan cahaya redup sedikit. ukuran fisik dunia 'dan karakteristik orbital bisa karena ditentukan.

Tapi mengukur usia tua dari bintang (dan karena usia sistem bintang seluruh) diperlukan para peneliti menggunakan metode asteroseismology untuk mendeteksi resonansi alami bintang itu disebabkan oleh gelombang suara terjebak dalam interior bintang. Resonansi menyebabkan sedikit variasi di kecerahan bintang yang kemudian digunakan untuk mengukur ukuran, massa bintang dan usia.

"Ada implikasi yang luas untuk penemuan ini," kata pemimpin penulis Tiago Campante dari University of Birmingham, UK "Kami sekarang tahu bahwa planet seukuran Bumi telah terbentuk di sebagian besar sejarah 13,8 miliar tahun alam semesta, yang bisa memberikan ruang untuk keberadaan kehidupan kuno di galaksi. "

BERITA: Para ilmuwan Depan Dalam Pada Exoplanet Earth-Sized

Memang, menemukan sistem dunia berbatu yang terbentuk di sekitar bintang kuno seperti menyarankan pembentukan planet terjadi sangat awal di alam semesta. Kita tahu bahwa ketika kondisi benar, seperti di Bumi, kehidupan mulai muncul di planet kita 3,6 miliar tahun yang lalu, sekitar satu miliar tahun setelah planet kita terbentuk dari piringan protoplanet yang mengelilingi matahari muda kita.

Sehingga menimbulkan pertanyaan: jika planet berbatu terbentuk 11,2 miliar tahun yang lalu di sekitar bintang lain, mungkin ada beberapa yang tidak hanya memiliki kondisi yang tepat untuk hidup yang akan memicu? Jika demikian, bisa kehidupan asing telah datang dan pergi dalam sejarah galaksi kita? Atau bisa hidup kuno ini menjadi bertahan untuk, berpotensi, 10 miliar tahun setelah pertama kali terbentuk?

Untuk saat ini, kami tidak tahu, tapi studi seperti ini memberikan petunjuk tentang kemungkinan relung kehidupan seluruh Bima Sakti.

Tuesday, March 22, 2016

Pengobatan Sariawan dengan Obat Herbal

Solusi alternatif mengatasi sariawan.
Untuk mengobati penyakit sariawan selama ini biasanya penderita secara khusus jarang berkunjung ke dokter. Alasan penyakit sariawan ini masih relatif ringan karena inilah tidak terlalu memerlukan kunjungan ke dokter. Obat oles khusus anti sariawan untuk menangani penyakit ini memiliki sifat yang tidak berbeda dengan obat anti jamur. Miconazole, nystatin, fluconazole, dan clotrimazole, serta econazole merupakan contoh – contoh dari obat oles untuk mengatasi sariawan.
Penambahan asupan vitamin C dengan mengkonsumsi tablet hisap atau tablet minum khusus yang mengandung vitamin C dengan dosis yang tinggi menjadi salah satu penanganan sariawan yang dilakukan oleh penderita sariawan tersebut. Atas dasar akan mempercepat proses penyembuhan infeksi sariawan penderita menggunakan vitamin C ini.
Menambahkan asupan vitamin C sintetis dengan porsi yang berlebihan padahal sebenarnya dapat berakibat fatal karena dapat menjadi menyebabkan beberapa efek pada pencernaan seperti tukak lambung menjadi semakin parah atau bahkan menyebabkan diare. Vitamin C sintetis bukan saran yang baik untuk menangani sariawan karena pengaruh rasa asam yang berasal dari vitamin ini. Di samping itu penggunaan vitamin C sintetis dengan dosis yang tinggi juga akan menyebabkan bahaya bagi ginjal.
Noni juice bisa Anda coba sebagai obat herbal sariawan dari bahan alami seperti  itulah sebabnya sangat disarankan untuk mendapatkan khasiat terbaik untuk mennagani keluhan dari sariawan. Noni juice akan membantu mengatasi keluhan penyakit sariawan dari dalam tubuh, hal ini berbeda dari obat sariawan yang beredar kebanyakan yang hanya dioleskan pada luka saja.
Mereka yang mudah terserang penyakit sariawan adalah karena sebagian besar dari mereka sebenarnya mempunyai masalah dengan keluhan peradangan seperti pada tukak lambung, radang hati dan lan sebagainya. Oleh karena itu, secara otomatis sifat scolopetin yang ada di dalam Noni juice tidak hanya mampu menurunkan intensitas peradangan pada sariawan akan tetapi dapat juga membantu meredakan daripada infeksi dan peradangan di dalam organ dalam. Karena itulah dapat mengurangi kecenderungan sariawan yang dapat datang secara berulang di bagian mulut.











Thursday, March 17, 2016

Gaya Fashion Terbaru

Gaya Fashion Terbaru -
Fashion adalah benar-benar sebuah topik panas di era sekarang ini. Setiap saat banyak tokoh ikon memperkenalkan sesuatu serta dunia biasanya mengadopsi Idenya segera SELAIN ini bisa menjadi busana terhubung dengan Item saat. tren yang berbeda diam-diam meninggal DAN JUGA Item keluar berkaitan dengan tren, sering disebut retro.

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Meskipun saya sering menggunakan istilah bergantian, pasangan saya dan saya harus menyadari itu benar-benar ada perbedaan besar antara fashion, gaya, mode DI SAMPING tren. dengan artikel Anda, ketika saya akan mengeksplorasi perbedaan individu.

Fashion, yang saya sudah dijelaskan, akan menjadi pendekatan untuk berpakaian SELAIN menampilkan diri seperti dunia adalah melakukan yang benar sekarang. dalam tahun 1960-an, sisi Anda sendiri berpisah rambut disisir rapi DAN JUGA bell bottom celana, BESERTA jaket bergaris menjadi orang busana hampir ke seluruh dunia. Namun, fashion Anda sebenarnya mati yang baik sekarang. Dengan demikian, fashion sebenarnya sangat banyak kontemporer. saat yang sama Anda akan mengatakan informasi tentang tren Sama seperti dengan baik. seluruh fakta, banyak desainer bersikeras fashion khususnya DAN JUGA tren umumnya tahun ini sama Anda dalam mode yang trend yang terkait dengan saus.

Style, di sisi lain sering secangkir lain yang terhubung dengan teh. Pertama, Ide tidak tergantung oleh waktu, Itu tergantung terhadap orang tersebut. gaya sering disebut mode permanen Anda saat individu. Melanjutkan contoh di atas, apakah seseorang memutuskan untuk memakai bawah bell SELAIN bergaris jaket yang paling hidupnya, mulai saat di tahun 1960-an, terlepas melibatkan fashion Anda saat ini memiliki lanjutan berubah, selanjutnya berarti Anda berpakaian dapat gayanya Personalized. Anda mungkin ingat bagaimana Gregory Peck tinggal bergaya BESERTA ditolak untuk dapat nol modis hampir sepanjang hidupnya. pakaian formal seluruh fungsi juga akan disebut gaya apakah tren baru akan membantu mengenakan celana jeans untuk bekerja.

Akhirnya, iseng adalah fashion berumur sangat pendek. sepanjang film, pasangan saya dan saya melihat aktor utama mengenakan band lengan mencolok DAN JUGA mulai mengenakan Item sampai orang film berikutnya datang tiga minggu kemudian SERTA pasangan saya dan saya menjatuhkan kebiasaan yang berkaitan dengan yang lain, maka itu adalah memang iseng tersebut. Karakteristik lain dari iseng-iseng Anda akan ini dapat umumnya tidak orang-orang teknik penuh berpakaian tapi lokasi yang besar terkait dengan saus penuh sebagai gantinya.

Orang biasanya mencari untuk dapat personas ikon untuk dapat melahirkan tren meskipun musim ini dimuat SELAIN kelas tinggi Anda menghadiri fashion show untuk dapat memverifikasi Apa merek baru dunia mode menawarkan untuk dapat menawarkan. meskipun Anda USA sendiri telah berhasil untuk Anda ke atas seluruh hampir setiap bidang yang terkait dengan kehidupan, Italia BESERTA Prancis menawarkan masih berhasil bagi Anda untuk kemungkinan menjadi kota mode yang dari dunia Anda, terutama Metropolis melibatkan Paris DI SAMPING Venice.

Findable.in biasanya platform pencarian barang berbasis lokasi 1 India. Findable.in memungkinkan pengguna mendapatkan hampir barang apapun BESERTA memilih untuk pedagang terdekat stok yang sebenarnya produk Anda sendiri. oleh ketersediaan berbasis lokasi sudah diaktifkan untuk lebih dari 500 merek, findable dapat membawa tingkat belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya baik terkait dengan kenyamanan terhadap konsumen India SERTA memproduksi perbelanjaan lokal lebih mudah sehubungan dengan jutaan mengenai pengguna.

Saturday, January 30, 2016

Sejarah Penemuan Tata Surya

Dari dahulu kala telah diketahui lima planet yang paling dekat dengan matahari selain bumi yatu merkurius, venus, mars, jupiter, dan saturnus dimana planet-planet tersebut memiliki sebutan yang berbeda pada banyak negara di dunia. Seiring perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi yang ditandai dengan penemuan Galileo Galilei (1964-1642) berupa teleskop refraktor sehingga dapat melihat lebih luas yang tak dapat dilihat dengan mata telanjang. Dari teleskop tersebut itulah diketahui bahwa Matahari dikelilingi venus. Dari perubahan posisi venus terhadap matahari ini, memperkuat teori heliosentris, yang menyatakan bahwa matahari adalah pusat alam semesta. Mematahkan teori heliosentris yang dicetuskan oleh Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) yang menyebutkan bahwa bumi adalah pusat alam semesta.
Teleskop yang ditemukan Galileo terus-menerus dikembangkan. Salah satunya oleh seorang ilmuan bernama Christian Huygens (1629-1965) yang menemukan Titan, yang merupakan satelit dari planet saturnus, yang berjarak hampir dua kali dari jarak bumi ke jupiter.  
Berbeda dengan Galileo yang menemukan teleskop, Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) menemukan perhitungan gerak benda-benda langit dan hubungan satu dengan yang lain yang disebut hukum kepler. Kemudian seiring dengan perkembangan jaman ditemukan hukum gravitasi yang dicetuskan oleh Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) dari kedua temuan tersebut membuat perhitungan dan pencarian benda-benda langit semakin berkembang.
Pada tahun 1781, William Herschel (1738-1822) menemukan planet uranus. Dari perhitungan orbit uranus ditemukanlah planet neptunus pada Agustus 1846 dan pluto tahun 1930.

Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, para ahli angkasa (astronom) telah menemukan sekitar 1.000 objek trans-Neptunus  yatu objek kecil di luar planet neptunus yang juga mengelilingi matahari. Di mana terdapat 100.000 objek yang menyerupai sabuk kuiper, yaitu suatu objek yang merupakan bagian dari objek-objek trans netunus. Benda langit yang termasuk dalam objek sabuk kuiper diantaranya adalah Huya (750 km pada Maret 2000), Quaoar (1.250 km pada juni 2002), Sedna (1.800 km pada maret 2004), Orcus, Vesta, Pallas, Hygiea, dan Varuna, serta 2003 EL61 (1.500 km pada mei 2004).

The movement of the Earth and the Moon

The movement of the Earth and the Moon. Earth has two kinds of movement, ie rotation and revolution. Due to the Earth's rotation and revolution resulted in several events. These events certainly is not foreign to us because almost everyone has experienced it. Events such as the occurrence of day and night, the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, the time difference in various parts of the earth, the gravitational acceleration of the earth as a result of the rotation of the earth. For more details will be outlined as follows:

1. Earth Rotation
Rotation of the Earth on its axis is called rotation of the Earth. For a single rotation, the Earth takes one day 23 hours 56 minutes or rounded to 24 hours. Earth rotates from west to east, the rotational motion of the earth causes various events, among others:
The occurrence of day and night
At the moment not all parts of the earth rotating the sun. Part of the earth that gets afternoon sun experience, while the part of the earth who do not get to experience the evening sunlight.
Apparent motion Daily Matahahari
The sun always rises in the east and sets in the west. Movement is called daily apparent motion of the sun. This movement occurs because of the rotation of the Earth. Earth rotates to the direction of movement from west to east. As a result, as if the sun moves from east to west.
The time difference in Different Places in the World

Rotation of the Earth causes the difference in time in various places in the world. In a single rotation, the Earth takes 24 hours (one day) and travel as far as 360 ° angle. Accordingly, any place on Earth at a distance of 15 ° has a time difference of one hour. If the distance is 30 °, then the two-hour time difference, and so on. This figure is derived by dividing the angle traveled by the travel time (360 °: 24 = 15 °). Indonesia lies between 95 ° E and 141 ° E. That is, the length of Indonesia is 46 °. Because every distance of 15 ° difference in time one hour, then Indonesia has three time zones. Three regions such time that Western Indonesia Time (WIB), AM (Central Indonesia Time), and WIT (East Indonesia Time).

Greenwich, London, England lies on the longitude 0 °. Therefore, the time in the city is used as a benchmark for the whole world. This time the benchmark is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). With reference to standard GMT, the faster Western Indonesian Time seven hours from GMT. Meanwhile, Central Indonesia Time quicker eight hours from GMT. The East Indonesia Time quicker nine hours from GMT. For example, if the show at 01.00 GMT, the West Indonesia Time showed 08.00.
Gravity Acceleration difference in Earth's surface
Rotation of the Earth causes the Earth is not perfectly round. Earth oblate at the poles. This resulted form the radius of Earth in the polar regions and the equator is different. Differences radius of the Earth makes a difference acceleration of gravity at the Earth's surface. The difference is mainly in the area of ??equator and the poles.

2. Revolution Earth
In addition to spinning on its axis, the Earth also rotates around the sun. The movement of the Earth around the Sun is called the revolution of the Earth. For one revolution, the Earth takes one year (365¼ days). Earth Revolution brought some influence on the Earth. Among them are the following:
Substitution Season
Earth around the Sun at an angle of 23½ ° to the northeast of the Earth's axis. This position led to the change of seasons. When the south pole of the Earth gravitate to the Sun, the southern hemisphere to grow closer to the sun. This leads to the southern hemisphere experiences summer. At the same time, the northern hemisphere is getting away from the sun. Northern hemisphere experience winter. Among turn summer into the cold, in the fall. Among turn winter into summer, there was a spring. Thus, the southern and northern hemisphere experienced four musim.Kalian certainly know we lived on the equator, equatorial always receive sunlight throughout the year. Therefore, the equatorial region experienced two seasons, musi dry and rainy season. Teradi rainy season between the months of October to April, and the dry season between the months of April to October. Commonly called the equatorial region of the tropics.
Annual Apparent motion of the Sun
The sun seemed to rise from a different place every certain period of the year. In fact, the Sun actually has not changed position. This appearance is due to the revolution of the Earth. The sun as if to move or migrate. Well, the motion is called the annual apparent motion of the sun. Note the picture below:
March 21. Viewed from Earth, the Sun exactly on the equator (0 °). Therefore, as if the sun rises just to the east. Similarly, as if the sun sank in the west right.
Dated June 21, seen from Earth, the Sun appears to be in northern latitudes 23½º (LU). Therefore, as if the sun rises slightly shifted to the north.
September 23, observed from Earth, the Sun looks back at the equatorial line. As a result, as if the sun rises just to the east.
December 22, the sun appears to be in the southern latitude 23½º (LS) when viewed from Earth. This causes the sun as though rising slightly shifted to the south.
Movement Month
Months have two kinds of movement, ie rotation and revolution. Consequences caused by the rotation and revolution of the Moon are as follows:
Rotation Month
Rotation of the Moon on its axis is called rotation of the Moon. For a single rotation, the Moon takes a month (29½ days). The rotation of the Moon does not give any influence on life on Earth.
Revolution Month
As the Earth's satellite, the Moon moves around the Earth. The movement of the Moon around the Earth called the revolution of the Moon. The time required for one revolution Month is a month (29½ days). When evolved, vast parts of the Moon are exposed to the Sun changes. Therefore, the shape of the Moon as seen from Earth are also changing. Spring tide occurs when the full moon and new moon. Neap tide occurs when the Moon beak. Change the shape of the Moon called the phases of the Moon.

In one revolution, the Moon suffered eight phases. When averaged, each phase of the Moon lasts for approximately 3-4 days.
The first day, the Moon is at position 0 °. The moon that are not exposed to the sun facing Earth. As a result, the Moon is not visible from Earth. This phase is called the new moon.
The fourth day, the Moon is at position 45 °. Viewed from Earth, the Moon appears curved like a sickle. This phase is called a crescent moon.
The eighth day, the Moon is at position 90 °. The moon was semicircular. This phase is called the Moon beak.
The eleventh day, the Moon is at position 135 °. Viewed from Earth, the Moon looks like a disc. This phase is called the Moon convex.
The fourteenth day, the Moon is at position 180 °. In this position, the Moon looks like a full circle. This phase is called the full moon or a full moon.
The seventeenth day, the Moon is at position 225 °. Viewed from Earth, the Moon sighting back such discs.
Twenty-first day, the Moon is at position 270 °. Moon sighting together with the Moon at position 90 °. The moon was semicircular.
Twenty-fifth day, the Moon is at position 315 °. Moon sighting in the same position with the position of the Moon at 45 °. The moon was shaped like a crescent. Furthermore, the Moon will return to its original position, ie the Moon die. Moon died the same position with the position of the new moon.
Movement influence the Earth and Moon
1. Lunar Eclipse

In that event Gerhanan obstruction of sunlight to the moon by the earth. These events resulted in becoming dark because no sunlight reflected. Lunar eclipse occurs when the position of the Sun, Earth and Moon in a straight line. The position of the earth is between the sun and moon. There are three types of lunar eclipses. Total lunar eclipse occurs when the moon is right in the area umbra (shadow of the Earth's core). If only a part of the lunar surface that comes into the shadow of the core and the other portion is in a blur, then called a partial lunar eclipse. While gerhanan penumbral lunar month when all parts are in the penumbra of the earth. At the time gerhanan penumbral lunar, moon still visible although not too bright. The length of a lunar eclipse can reach 6 months. However, for a total eclipse only 1 hour 40 minutes.
2. Solar Eclipse

Solar eclipse event is the closing of the sun by the moon which lead to obstruction of sunlight to reach the Earth. A solar eclipse occurs when the sun, earth and moon lie on a straight line. By the time the sun moon gerhanan situated between the sun and earth. Solar eclipse can not last more than 7 minutes and 40 seconds. When a solar eclipse, people banned from looking at the sun with the naked eye as this can permanently damage the eyes and cause blindness. You need to know, there are three kinds of solar eclipse is a total solar eclipse, partial solar eclipse, and the solar eclipse ring.
Total Solar Eclipse
The total solar eclipse or eclipse also called matahri perfect. occurs when the Earth's surface is covered by the shadow umbra month. This eclipse occurs only in the affected area umbra (shadow core) months.
Solar Eclipse Part
Partial solar eclipse occurs when the Earth's surface is covered penumbra month. So, the sun is not perfectly covered by the moon. At matahri partial eclipse, there are still parts of the sun's visible light. The time the partial solar eclipse over the course of time longer than the total eclipse matahri. This is because the moon wider penumbra of umbra month.
The eclipse of the sun Ring
Ring solar eclipse occurs when the moon is at its farthest from the Earth. At this position the cone length is not enough to cover the earth's umbra but umbra month extension that covers the earth. Area on the earth's surface which is located in the extension of the ring eclipse umbra months experience. In areas experiencing this eclipse, the sun glow that looks like a ring. While in the middle blurred.

The dating system

Calendar is a system to take into account the time. Time is divided into days, weeks, months, and years. There are two calendar systems, namely AD and AH
1. Calendar AD
BC calendar is also called a solar calendar, or the solar calendar. BC calendar is based on the revolution of the earth around the sun. Earth moves around the sun according to evolutionary trajectory. Once round the earth takes 365 ¼ days (1 year = 365 or 366 days).

In AD calendar, the year is divided into 12 months. Ie January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, and December. The number of days each month are not the same. Determination of BC initially conducted by Julius Caesar of the Roman Empire.

Leap year is a year in which the number of the next 366 days. In February the number of the next 29 days. But in a leap year the number of days in February there were 29 days. In the leap year, year number is divisible by 4. Leap year only 1 time in 4 years. The way to determine a leap year can be done by dividing the year. The number of years divisible by 4. Example: 1980 is a leap year since 1980 is divisible by 4 (1980: 4 = 495). While 1981 is not a leap year. Because 1981 is not divisible by 4 (1981: 4 = 495 trace 1).

2. Hijri Calendar
Hijra calendar calculation based on rotation of moon around the earth. Hijra calendar is also called lunar calendar. The time it takes months to evolve a single round for 29 ½ days. One year in the Hijra calendar is divided into 12 months. Namely Muharram, Safar, Rabi early, late Rabi, Jumadil beginning, Jumadil end, Rajab, Sha'ban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Zulkaidah and Zulhijjah. Hijra calendar there is also a leap year, so-called leap years in a year when there were 355 days. One day was added in Zulhijjah, resulting in a leap year Hijri calendar in the next 30 days Zulhijjah number.

Sunday, December 20, 2015

Definition of Civil Servants (PNS) Definition of the Regional Employment

Understanding Employee According to the Indonesian General Dictionary of Poerwadarminta (1991: 593), said Employee means a person who worked for the government (companies and so on).
The term employee according to Wijaya (2002: 15) contains the following definitions: (Definition of Civil Servants | Definition of the Regional Employment)
Being a member of a partnership (organization) with a view to obtaining remuneration / reward compensation for services rendered.
Being in work systems that are straightforward / disinterested.
Serves as the recipient of work and dealing with the employer.
Receiver position as it is obtained after working through the admission process.
And will face the dismissal (termination of employment between the employer and the recipient of the work).

Overview In Normative - Definition of the Regional Employment
1. Regional Employment Board - Definition of the Regional Employment Board
Based on Presidential Decree No. 159 of 2000 article 1, paragraph (1), stated that the Regional Employment Board, hereinafter referred to as BKD is the area that carry out management of the Regional Civil Servants in helping the main tasks of Trustees of the Regional Personnel Officer.
Regional Employment Board under and responsible to the Head of the Region through the Regional Secretary. BKD has a fundamental duty to help coaches Regional Personnel Officer in implementing the Civil Service Management
Furthermore, in Article 4 of the Presidential Decree, mentioned that in carrying out its core functions, BKD performs functions as follows
Preparation of drafting legislation in the field of employment areas in accordance with the norms, standards and procedures established by the government;
Planning and staff development areas;
Preparation of technical policy staff development areas;
Preparation and implementation of recruitment, promotion, transfer and dismissal of Regional Civil Servants in accordance with the norms, standards and procedures specified in the legislation;
Administrative services personnel in the appointment, transfer and dismissal in and of structural or functional positions in accordance with the norms, standards and procedures established by the legislation;
Preparation and determination of Regional Civil Servants pension in accordance with the norms, standards and procedures established by the legislation;
Preparation of the determination of salaries, benefits, and welfare of the Regional Civil Servants in accordance with the norms, standards and procedures established by laws and regulations;
Administration of the Regional Civil Servants;
Personnel information system management area;
Submission of personnel information area to the State Personnel Board.


2. Civil Servants - Definition of Civil Servants
In Article 1 (1) of Law No. 43 of 1999 on the Amendment of Law No. 8 of 1974 on the Principles of Personnel, noted that the Civil Service is every citizen of the Republic of Indonesia who have qualified defined, raised by officials authorized and entrusted with the task in a domestic position, or entrusted with the task of other countries and paid based on the legislation in force.
From the formulation of the above conclusion that there are elements that must be met by a person to be called servants, namely:
Meet the requirements set by the legislation in force;
Appointed by the competent authority;
Entrusted with the task in the post office of the country or other countries;
Paid by the legislation in force.
The type servants under Law No. 43 of 1999 Article 2 is:
1. Servants consists of:
Government employees;
Members of the Indonesian National Army; and
Members of the Indonesian National Police.
2. Civil Servants consists of:
Civil Service Center; and
Regional Civil Servants.
Pursuant to Article 3, paragraph (1) of Law No. 43 of 1999 explained that the Servant serves as an element of the state apparatus that served to provide public services in a professional, fair and equitable in the administration of the State duties, governance and development.

Definition of Civil Servants


2.2.3. Performance

According to the Decision Institute of Public Administration of the Republic of Indonesia Number: 598 / IX / 6 / X / 1999 on Guidelines for Preparation of Reporting Accountability of Government Performance, performance is an overview of the level of achievement of the implementation of an activity / program / wisdom in realizing the goals, objectives, mission and vision of a organization.

Understanding Work Productivity According to the Experts

Understanding Productivity - Productivity implies philosophical, technical and operational working definition, philosophically, Productivity contains a view of life and mental attitude are always trying to improve the quality of life. Circumstances should be better today than yesterday, and tomorrow's quality of life should be better than today. View of life and mental attitude will thus encourage people to not be quickly satisfied and will continue to improve his work (Definition of Work Productivity According to Experts)


Definition Work Productivity According to the Experts >> For definitions of work, productivity is a comparison between the results achieved (outputs) with total resources (inputs) used per unit time, this work contains a definition of the way or method of measurement, although in theory be done but practically difficult to implement, particularly due to the input power source that is used generally consists of many kinds and in different proportions.

Factors Affecting Productivity
According Moekijat (1999) the productivity of the company's employees are influenced by three factors: (p 30)
 a. Quality and physical abilities of employees
The quality and capabilities of the employees affected by the level of education, training, motivation, ethics, mental and physical abilities of employees.

b. Means of support
Means of support or an increase in employee productivity can be grouped in two categories, namely:
Concerning the working environment, including technologies and modes of production facilities, and production equipment, the level of safety and health as well as the atmosphere in the work environment itself.
Concerning the welfare of employees is reflected in the wage system and guarantee the continuity of the work.


c. Supra means
The company's activities do not occur in isolation. What happens in the companies affected by what happens outside it, as a source of production factors to be used, the prospects for marketing, licensing taxation, etc.

Understanding Work Productivity According to the Experts | Meanwhile, according to her book Ravianto productivity and measurements, the factors that affect employee productivity, among others (Ravianto, 1986):
Education
Environment and climate work
Skill
Industrial Huungan
Attitude and work ethic
Technology
Motivation
Nutrition and health
Means of production
Income levels
Management
Social Security
Outstanding opportunities
Understanding Work Productivity


Efforts Increased Labor Productivity
In order to achieve efficiency, employee productivity is indispensable. Increased productivity can be done in several ways, among others (Ravianto, 1986):
Increased education
Education and training to increase knowledge and work skills. Exercises can be done both inside and outside of work. Exercises are conducted mostly formal.
Improvement of income and wages
Wage improvements will ultimately be able to guarantee the improvement of nutrition and health. Malnourished people not only inhibits the growth of children but also directly affect the productivity of employees. Low levels of income causes one dpat not meet basic needs such as food, clothing, housing and adequate health, which further causes low productivity.
Selection of supplementary facilities for production technology
A person who uses the equipment is complete and perfect higher productivity compared with those which use simpler equipment.
Improved leadership capability
Capabilities and high level of labor productivity of the employees are not just there if it is not supported by the leadership of creative and participative. For that management is indispensable participation.

Friday, December 11, 2015

Understanding Democracy in Indonesia Paper, History, Types Liberal Democracy, Parliamentary, Guided

Democracy in Indonesia, Paper, History, Types Liberal Democracy, Parliamentary, Guided, Pancasila - In political science, there are two kinds of understanding of democracy: understanding normative and empirical understanding. For understanding the latter also known as procedural democracy. In a normative understanding, democracy is something that should idiil carried or held by a country, such as the expression of US President Lincoln in his speech "Government of the people, by the people and for the people". The normative expression, usually translated in the constitution of each country, such as the Act of 1945 for the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. (Democracy in Indonesia)

Understanding Democracy in Indonesia

"Sovereignty is in the people, and carried out entirely by the People's Consultative Assembly" (Article 1, paragraph 2).

"Freedom of association and assembly, of expression with oral and writing and so on, are set by law" (Article 28).

Quote chapters and verses Act of 1945 above the normative definition of democracy. But what is normative is not necessarily can be seen in the context of day-to-day political life of a country. Therefore it is very necessary look at the meaning of democracy empirically, that is democracy in its manifestations in practical political life.

Political scientists have formulated a definition of democracy empirically using a number of specific indicators. Deliar (in Mahfud MD, 2000: 19) considers democracy as the basis of statehood gives the sense that the final level of the people providing the provisions of the key issues affecting their lives, including in assessing the state policy, because the policy determines people's lives. The understanding of democracy in a context such as this allow us to observe: whether in a political system of the government to provide sufficient space for their peoples to participation in order to formulate their political preferences through the existing political organizations (Gaffar, 2004: 5).

Democracy can be understood as a "polity" in which all citizens enjoy freedom of speech, freedom of association, have the same rights before the law, and the freedom to practice a religion that is embraced (Sundaussen in Murod, 1999: 59).

While Robert Dahl (in Murod, 1999: 60) argues that in order to achieve the democratic ideal, at least five things must be fulfilled. First, in making a decision that is both collective and binding, privilege every citizen should be considered equally in determining the final decision. Second, in the whole process of collective decision-making, then every citizen should have equal opportunity to express their political rights. Third, the disclosure of truth. Here every citizen should have the same opportunities to assess the logical order to achieve the desired results.

Fourth, the final control of the agenda. Here, people should also have the executive power to determine which ones should and should not be decided through a process that meets three of the above. This is to avoid any decisions that are made in ways that are not democratic. Fifth, the inclusion of all elements of society which includes all adults in connection with law enforcement.

Gaffar (2004: 7-9) suggested some indicators of whether an order is a political system that is democratic or not, namely: First Accountability, in a democracy every office holders elected by the people must be accountable for the policy to be and have been taken. Not only that, it also must be accountable for speech or words. And no less important is the behavior in everyday life. The second rotation of power, in democracies the opportunity to be the rotation of power must exist, and carried out regularly and peacefully. So it's not just one person who has always held the post, while the chances of others closed altogether. The third political recruitment that is open, to allow for rotation of power, needed an open system of political recruitment. That is, any qualified person to fill a political office elected by the people have the same opportunities in conducting a competition for the post.

The fourth general election, in a democracy, elections are regularly held. Every adult citizen has the right to vote and are free to use their rights in accordance with the will of his conscience. Fifth enjoy basic rights in a democratic country, every citizen can enjoy basic rights them freely, including the right to express opinions (freedom of expression), the right to assemble and beserikat (freedom of assembly) and the right to enjoy a free press (freedom of the press).

According to Urofsky (2001: 2-5), there are 11 prinsif who have known and believed to be the key to understanding how democracy is flourishing, namely:

Prinsif government based on the Constitution: the process of making laws to do with any particular rules; there must be a way that has been agreed for the manufacture and conversion of legislation, and specific areas are referred to as individual rights that can not be touched by the will of the majority. The Constitution is a legal product, but at the same time it should be more than that. He is an organic document of the government, which regulates the power of the pillars of different government once the reference limit government authority.

Democratic Election: no matter how good a government designed, it can not be considered democratic unless the officials who led the government freely elected by the citizens in a way that is open and honest to all.

Federalism, State and Local Government: a federal state has a uniqueness, where power and authority are divided and run by the local government, state, and national levels. However, if this model is not suitable for a country, there are still lessons to be learned. The farther a government of the people, then he is getting less effective and more lack of confidence.

Making the law: The key law-making (legislation) that is democratic does not lie in the procedure or how or even forums where regulation was produced, but on the nature of the openness of the process to the population and the need for an understanding of the expectations of the people.

An independent judicial system: Court can be very powerful in a democracy, and in many ways it is the hand that interprets and enforces the rules that exist in the constitution.

The power of the presidency: All modern societies must have a chief executive who is able to bear the responsibility of government, ranging from the simple administration of a program to mobilize the armed forces to defend the country during the war.

The role of free media: That is closely linked to the public's right to know is a free media newspapers, radio and television networks that could investigate the running of the government and report it without fear of prosecution.

The role of interest groups: The government must pay attention to and empower the groups that exist in society both political parties and civic organizations in order to convey the will and demands of the people.

The public's right to know: In a democracy, the government should be open, meaning that ideas and decisions must be open for public testing carefully. Of course, not all government measures should be published, but the people have a right to know how their tax money is spent, whether efficient and effective law enforcement, and whether their elected representatives to act responsibly.

Protecting minority rights: If "democracy" is defined as the will of the majority, then one of the big problems is how minorities are treated. Minorities are not defined as people who choose an opponent from the party that won the elections, but in those that are clearly different from the majority for reasons of race, religion, or to-etnisan.

Civilian control over the military: In a democracy, the military must not only be under the control of civilian authorities fully, but he also must have a culture that affirms that the army's role is as a servant rather than the public authorities.

Democracy in Indonesia

In the political history of Indonesia, we know at least four kinds of democracy: government of the revolution democratic, parliamentary democracy (repsentatif democracy), democracy guided (guided democracy), and democracy Pancasila (Pancasila democracy) (Gaffar, 2004: 10).

a. Liberal democracy (government of the revolution) (1945-1949)

The organizers state in the early period of independence has a very large commitment in realizing the political democracy in Indonesia. The revolution of democracy reign lasted from 1945 to 1949, there are some things that fundemental which is the foundation for democracy in Indonesia this period, namely:

Political thorough franchise. The forming state, already from the beginning committed greatly to democracy, so when independence was taken, all citizens who are considered adults have political rights are equal, without any discrimination that comes from race, religion, ethnicity, and regionalism.

President who constitutionally is likely to be a dictator, his power is limited when the Central Indonesian National Committee (KNIP) was formed to replace the parliamentary.

By edict Vice President, then it is possible the formation of a political party, which later became the foundation stone for the party system in Indonesia for the later period in our political history


b.Parliamentary democracy

The second period of government of Indonesia is 1950 to 1959, using the Constitution Temporary (Provisional Constitution) as a constitutional basis. During this period of government called parliamentary government, because at this time is the triumph of the parliament in the political history of Indonesia before the Reformation. That period may be referred to as "Representative / Participatory Democracy".

The period of Parliamentary Democracy was the era of democracy in Indonesia, almost all of the elements of democracy can be found in its manifestations in political life in Indonesia.

people's representative assembly or parliament plays a role that is very high in the political process running. Embodiments of parliamentary power is shown by the number of vote of no confidence to the government that led to the cabinet must resign.

accountability of office holders and politicians in general is very high. This can happen because the functioning of parliament and also a number of mass media as a means of social control.

the life of the party can be said to obtain a significant opportunity to develop optimally. In this period, Indonesia embraced multi-party system (Multy patry system). There are nearly 40 political parties formed with a very high degree of autonomy in the recruitment process, either officials or party leaders and supporters.

Election though only executed one time in 1955, but the General Election is actually implemented with democratic principles.

society in general can feel that their basic rights are not reduced at all, though not all citizens can exploit to the maximum.

during the reign of parlemeter, regions gained considerable autonomy, even the broadest autonomy with the principle of decentralization as a cornerstone to stand in regulating the relations of power between central government and regional governments.

c. Guided Democracy (1959-1965)

Since the end of the elections of 1955, the President has shown symptoms of displeasure to political parties. It happened because the political parties are very oriented toward the interests of its own ideology and less attention to the overall interests of national politics.

Guided democracy is a total reversal of the political processes that are running at the time of parliamentary democracy. The so-called democracy is nothing but a manifestation of the will of the president in order to place himself as the only one of the most powerful institution in Indonesia. The main characteristics of politics in the era of Guided Democracy is:

A blurring of the party system. The presence of political parties, not to prepare within the framework of political contestation to fill political positions in government (since the General Election was never executed), but more of a supporting element of the pull anatara the President, the Army and the Communist Party of Indonesia.

With the DPR-GR is formed, the role of the legislature in the national political system becomes increasingly weaker. For DPR-GR then more a political instrument of the President.

Basic human rights became very weak. Soekarno easily get rid of political opponents are not in accordance with the policies or have the courage to oppose it.

Guided Democracy is the peak period of the spirit of anti-freedom of the press. A number of newspapers and magazines were banned by Sukarno.

Centralization of power increasingly dominant in the relationship between the central government to local government. The regions have limited autonomy.

Understanding Democracy in Indonesia

d. Pancasila democracy (democracy in the New Order administration)

A new era in government began after a short transition period, ie between 1965 samapai 1968, when General Suharto was elected President of the Republic of Indonesia. Later known as the era of the New Order.

New Order gave new hope, especially with regard to political changes, from authoritarian to the period under Sukarno's Guided Democracy becomes more democratic. But the reality is not as expected, substitute authoritarian president turned out to be an authoritarian, too.

There are several indicators of democracy which is used during labeled Pancasila democracy, namely:

Rotation of executive power is virtually almost never happens. Except as contained in the lower ranks, such as governors, regents / mayors, district and village heads. Even if there is a change, during the New Order government only occurred in the vice president, while the government has essentially remained the same.

Political recruitment closed. Political recruitment is the process of filling political positions in the misappropriation of state government. This includes executive positions (President accompanied by cabinet ministers), legislative (MPR, DPR, DPRD, Level I, Level II DPRD), and other institutions of higher positions.

General elections. In the reign of the New Order, the General Election has been held six times, with regular frequency, ie every five years. However, if we observe the quality of general elections in Indonesia can be summed up very far from the spirit of democracy.

Basic human rights. This issue is also still a very complicated thing. It's not a secret anymore, that the international community is often closely related to the political highlight implementation issues of human rights. As a matter of freedom of the press and freedom of expression.

Definition of Political Communication, Papers, Theory According to the Experts Nimmo

Definition Definition of Political Communication, Papers, Theory According to the Experts Nimno - Political derived from the word "polis" meaning the state, the city, which in totality is a unity between the state (city) and its people. The word "policy" was developed into the "politicos" which means citizenship. From the word "politicos" to "politera" which means that the rights of citizenship (Sumarno, 1989: 8). (Political Communication Theory According to Experts)

Definition of Political Communication - By definition, there are several views of political scholars, including Nimmo (2000: 8) defines politics as the activity of the collective governing their actions in the conditions of social conflict. In many ways people differ from each other - physically, talents, emotions, needs, goals, initiatives, behaviors, and so on. Furthermore Nimmo explained, sometimes these differences stimulating arguments, disputes and squabbles. If they consider it a serious dispute, their attention by introducing conflicting issues, and complete; This is political activity.

For Lasswell (in Varma, 1995: 258), political science is the science of power. In contrast to David Easton in Sumarno (1989: 8), defines politics as follows:

"Political as a process Reviews those developmental processes through the which persons acquire political orientation and patterns of behavior"

David Easton in this definition emphasizes that politics as a process in which the development of the process a person receives a certain political orientation and behavior patterns.

If the definition of communication and the definition of politics that we associate with political communication, there will be a formula as follows: Political communication is communication that is aimed to achieve an effect such that the issues discussed by the type of communication activities, can be binding on all citizens through a sanctions are determined jointly by political institutions (Astrid S. Susanto, 1980: 2).

Regarding political communication (political communication) Kantaprawira (1983: 25) to focus on their role, which is to connect the political mind living in the community, both intra-class mind, institution, association, or sectors of the political life of the society with the government's political life sector.

Thus all patterns of thoughts, ideas or efforts to achieve the effect, only with communication can achieve everything expected, because essentially any thoughts or ideas and policies (policy) must exist that deliver and there received it, the process is a process of communication.

Viewed from a political goal "an sich", the essence of political communication is a group effort of man who has the orientation of political thought or a particular ideology in order to master or gain power, by which the power of the purpose of political thought and ideology can be realized.

Lasswell (in Varma, 1995: 258) considers the orientation of political communication has made two things very clear: first, that political communication is always oriented to the value or trying to reach the goal; values and objectives established itself in and by the behavior of the actual process is a part; and secondly, that aims to reach a political komunikai future and are anticipating and dealing with the past and always pay attention to past events.

In this case, R.S. Sigel (in Sumarno, 1989: 10) gave the following views:

"Political socialization Refers to the learning process, by the which the political norms and behavior acceptable to an ongoing political system are transmitted from generation to generation."

Sigel of limitation shows that political socialization is not just focused on acceptance of political norms and behaviors on the ongoing political system, but also how merwariskan or transfer values from one generation the next state.

a. Political communicator

According to Nimmo, one feature of the communication is that people rarely can avoid and keturutsertaan. Only attended and taken into account by one else has the value of the message. In the most general sense we all are communicators, as well as anyone in the political setting is a political communicator (2000: 28). While recognizing that every person is able to communicate about politics, we recognize that relatively few are doing so, at least to do so as well as permanent and continuous. They were relatively few are not only exchanging political message; they are opinion leaders in the process. This political communicators, compared to citizens in general, were taken more seriously when they speak and act.

As a supporter of a greater understanding of the role of political communicators in the opinion process, Leonard W. Dood in Nimmo (2000: 30) suggest the kinds of things that should be known about them: "Communicator can be analyzed as himself. His attitude to the potential audience, which gave them dignity as a human being, can affect the resulting communication; so if he thought they were stupid, he would adjust the tone of the message with the same level low. He himself thinking about certain abilities that can be conceptualized according to the ability of his wits, his experience as a communicator with audience similar or dissimilar, and the role played in his personality by the motive for berkomukasi.

Based on the recommendation Doob, it is clear that komukator or communicators should be identified and their position in society should be established. For this purpose Nimmo (2000: 30) identifies three categories of politicians, namely that acts as a communicator pilitik, professional communicators in politics, and activists or communicator part-time (part time)

b. Politicians as a communicator Politics

The first group are those who aspire to hold public office and hold government should communicate about politics and called the politicians, no matter whether they are elected, appointed, or career positions, both positions the executive, legislative or judicial. Their work is a major aspect aspect in this activity. Although politicians serve various purposes to communicate, there are two things that stand out. Daniel Katz (in Nimmo, 2000: 30) suggests that political leaders directing influence in two directions, that affects the allocation of rewards and change the existing social structure or prevent such changes.

In the first politician's authority to communicate as a representative of the group; messages politician was filed and protect the political interests of the destination, meaning that political communicator to represent the interests of the group. Conversely, politicians who act as ideology is not so concentrated attention to the demands pushing the group, he busied himself over to set the broader policy objectives, pursue reforms and even supporting revolutionary change.

Included in this group, politicians who do not hold positions in the government, they are also political communicator on issues of national and international scope, the problem of multiple and narrow its scope.

So many kinds of politicians who act as political communicator, but for simplicity we classify them as a politician (1) is located inside or outside the office of the government, (2) holds a national or sub-national, and (3) dealt with the issue of multiple or single issues ,

Definition of Political Communication

c. Professionals as a political communicator

Professional communicators are a relatively new social role, a byproduct of the communications revolution that has at least two main dimensions: the advent of the mass media that crosses the boundaries of race, ethnicity, occupation, region, and classes to raise awareness of national identity; and development necessarily special media that creates a new public to be consumers of information and entertainment (Nimmo, 2002: 33).

A professional communicator, according to James Carey (in Nimmo, 2000: 33) is a realtor symbol, people who translate the attitudes, knowledge, and interest in a language community in terms of other linguistic communities and different but interesting and understandable. Professional communicators linking elites in organizations or any kominitas with the public; horizontally it connects two language communities that are differentiated on the same level of social structure.

However, since becoming a professional communicator, not a politician, a professional who communicates sets itself apart from the types of other political communicator, especially political activists.