Friday, December 11, 2015
Definition of Political Communication, Papers, Theory According to the Experts Nimmo
Definition of Political Communication - By definition, there are several views of political scholars, including Nimmo (2000: 8) defines politics as the activity of the collective governing their actions in the conditions of social conflict. In many ways people differ from each other - physically, talents, emotions, needs, goals, initiatives, behaviors, and so on. Furthermore Nimmo explained, sometimes these differences stimulating arguments, disputes and squabbles. If they consider it a serious dispute, their attention by introducing conflicting issues, and complete; This is political activity.
For Lasswell (in Varma, 1995: 258), political science is the science of power. In contrast to David Easton in Sumarno (1989: 8), defines politics as follows:
"Political as a process Reviews those developmental processes through the which persons acquire political orientation and patterns of behavior"
David Easton in this definition emphasizes that politics as a process in which the development of the process a person receives a certain political orientation and behavior patterns.
If the definition of communication and the definition of politics that we associate with political communication, there will be a formula as follows: Political communication is communication that is aimed to achieve an effect such that the issues discussed by the type of communication activities, can be binding on all citizens through a sanctions are determined jointly by political institutions (Astrid S. Susanto, 1980: 2).
Regarding political communication (political communication) Kantaprawira (1983: 25) to focus on their role, which is to connect the political mind living in the community, both intra-class mind, institution, association, or sectors of the political life of the society with the government's political life sector.
Thus all patterns of thoughts, ideas or efforts to achieve the effect, only with communication can achieve everything expected, because essentially any thoughts or ideas and policies (policy) must exist that deliver and there received it, the process is a process of communication.
Viewed from a political goal "an sich", the essence of political communication is a group effort of man who has the orientation of political thought or a particular ideology in order to master or gain power, by which the power of the purpose of political thought and ideology can be realized.
Lasswell (in Varma, 1995: 258) considers the orientation of political communication has made two things very clear: first, that political communication is always oriented to the value or trying to reach the goal; values and objectives established itself in and by the behavior of the actual process is a part; and secondly, that aims to reach a political komunikai future and are anticipating and dealing with the past and always pay attention to past events.
In this case, R.S. Sigel (in Sumarno, 1989: 10) gave the following views:
"Political socialization Refers to the learning process, by the which the political norms and behavior acceptable to an ongoing political system are transmitted from generation to generation."
Sigel of limitation shows that political socialization is not just focused on acceptance of political norms and behaviors on the ongoing political system, but also how merwariskan or transfer values from one generation the next state.
a. Political communicator
According to Nimmo, one feature of the communication is that people rarely can avoid and keturutsertaan. Only attended and taken into account by one else has the value of the message. In the most general sense we all are communicators, as well as anyone in the political setting is a political communicator (2000: 28). While recognizing that every person is able to communicate about politics, we recognize that relatively few are doing so, at least to do so as well as permanent and continuous. They were relatively few are not only exchanging political message; they are opinion leaders in the process. This political communicators, compared to citizens in general, were taken more seriously when they speak and act.
As a supporter of a greater understanding of the role of political communicators in the opinion process, Leonard W. Dood in Nimmo (2000: 30) suggest the kinds of things that should be known about them: "Communicator can be analyzed as himself. His attitude to the potential audience, which gave them dignity as a human being, can affect the resulting communication; so if he thought they were stupid, he would adjust the tone of the message with the same level low. He himself thinking about certain abilities that can be conceptualized according to the ability of his wits, his experience as a communicator with audience similar or dissimilar, and the role played in his personality by the motive for berkomukasi.
Based on the recommendation Doob, it is clear that komukator or communicators should be identified and their position in society should be established. For this purpose Nimmo (2000: 30) identifies three categories of politicians, namely that acts as a communicator pilitik, professional communicators in politics, and activists or communicator part-time (part time)
b. Politicians as a communicator Politics
The first group are those who aspire to hold public office and hold government should communicate about politics and called the politicians, no matter whether they are elected, appointed, or career positions, both positions the executive, legislative or judicial. Their work is a major aspect aspect in this activity. Although politicians serve various purposes to communicate, there are two things that stand out. Daniel Katz (in Nimmo, 2000: 30) suggests that political leaders directing influence in two directions, that affects the allocation of rewards and change the existing social structure or prevent such changes.
In the first politician's authority to communicate as a representative of the group; messages politician was filed and protect the political interests of the destination, meaning that political communicator to represent the interests of the group. Conversely, politicians who act as ideology is not so concentrated attention to the demands pushing the group, he busied himself over to set the broader policy objectives, pursue reforms and even supporting revolutionary change.
Included in this group, politicians who do not hold positions in the government, they are also political communicator on issues of national and international scope, the problem of multiple and narrow its scope.
So many kinds of politicians who act as political communicator, but for simplicity we classify them as a politician (1) is located inside or outside the office of the government, (2) holds a national or sub-national, and (3) dealt with the issue of multiple or single issues ,
Definition of Political Communication
c. Professionals as a political communicator
Professional communicators are a relatively new social role, a byproduct of the communications revolution that has at least two main dimensions: the advent of the mass media that crosses the boundaries of race, ethnicity, occupation, region, and classes to raise awareness of national identity; and development necessarily special media that creates a new public to be consumers of information and entertainment (Nimmo, 2002: 33).
A professional communicator, according to James Carey (in Nimmo, 2000: 33) is a realtor symbol, people who translate the attitudes, knowledge, and interest in a language community in terms of other linguistic communities and different but interesting and understandable. Professional communicators linking elites in organizations or any kominitas with the public; horizontally it connects two language communities that are differentiated on the same level of social structure.
However, since becoming a professional communicator, not a politician, a professional who communicates sets itself apart from the types of other political communicator, especially political activists.