Democracy in Indonesia, Paper, History, Types Liberal Democracy, Parliamentary, Guided, Pancasila - In political science, there are two kinds of understanding of democracy: understanding normative and empirical understanding. For understanding the latter also known as procedural democracy. In a normative understanding, democracy is something that should idiil carried or held by a country, such as the expression of US President Lincoln in his speech "Government of the people, by the people and for the people". The normative expression, usually translated in the constitution of each country, such as the Act of 1945 for the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. (Democracy in Indonesia)
Understanding Democracy in Indonesia
"Sovereignty is in the people, and carried out entirely by the People's Consultative Assembly" (Article 1, paragraph 2).
"Freedom of association and assembly, of expression with oral and writing and so on, are set by law" (Article 28).
Quote chapters and verses Act of 1945 above the normative definition of democracy. But what is normative is not necessarily can be seen in the context of day-to-day political life of a country. Therefore it is very necessary look at the meaning of democracy empirically, that is democracy in its manifestations in practical political life.
Political scientists have formulated a definition of democracy empirically using a number of specific indicators. Deliar (in Mahfud MD, 2000: 19) considers democracy as the basis of statehood gives the sense that the final level of the people providing the provisions of the key issues affecting their lives, including in assessing the state policy, because the policy determines people's lives. The understanding of democracy in a context such as this allow us to observe: whether in a political system of the government to provide sufficient space for their peoples to participation in order to formulate their political preferences through the existing political organizations (Gaffar, 2004: 5).
Democracy can be understood as a "polity" in which all citizens enjoy freedom of speech, freedom of association, have the same rights before the law, and the freedom to practice a religion that is embraced (Sundaussen in Murod, 1999: 59).
While Robert Dahl (in Murod, 1999: 60) argues that in order to achieve the democratic ideal, at least five things must be fulfilled. First, in making a decision that is both collective and binding, privilege every citizen should be considered equally in determining the final decision. Second, in the whole process of collective decision-making, then every citizen should have equal opportunity to express their political rights. Third, the disclosure of truth. Here every citizen should have the same opportunities to assess the logical order to achieve the desired results.
Fourth, the final control of the agenda. Here, people should also have the executive power to determine which ones should and should not be decided through a process that meets three of the above. This is to avoid any decisions that are made in ways that are not democratic. Fifth, the inclusion of all elements of society which includes all adults in connection with law enforcement.
Gaffar (2004: 7-9) suggested some indicators of whether an order is a political system that is democratic or not, namely: First Accountability, in a democracy every office holders elected by the people must be accountable for the policy to be and have been taken. Not only that, it also must be accountable for speech or words. And no less important is the behavior in everyday life. The second rotation of power, in democracies the opportunity to be the rotation of power must exist, and carried out regularly and peacefully. So it's not just one person who has always held the post, while the chances of others closed altogether. The third political recruitment that is open, to allow for rotation of power, needed an open system of political recruitment. That is, any qualified person to fill a political office elected by the people have the same opportunities in conducting a competition for the post.
The fourth general election, in a democracy, elections are regularly held. Every adult citizen has the right to vote and are free to use their rights in accordance with the will of his conscience. Fifth enjoy basic rights in a democratic country, every citizen can enjoy basic rights them freely, including the right to express opinions (freedom of expression), the right to assemble and beserikat (freedom of assembly) and the right to enjoy a free press (freedom of the press).
According to Urofsky (2001: 2-5), there are 11 prinsif who have known and believed to be the key to understanding how democracy is flourishing, namely:
Prinsif government based on the Constitution: the process of making laws to do with any particular rules; there must be a way that has been agreed for the manufacture and conversion of legislation, and specific areas are referred to as individual rights that can not be touched by the will of the majority. The Constitution is a legal product, but at the same time it should be more than that. He is an organic document of the government, which regulates the power of the pillars of different government once the reference limit government authority.
Democratic Election: no matter how good a government designed, it can not be considered democratic unless the officials who led the government freely elected by the citizens in a way that is open and honest to all.
Federalism, State and Local Government: a federal state has a uniqueness, where power and authority are divided and run by the local government, state, and national levels. However, if this model is not suitable for a country, there are still lessons to be learned. The farther a government of the people, then he is getting less effective and more lack of confidence.
Making the law: The key law-making (legislation) that is democratic does not lie in the procedure or how or even forums where regulation was produced, but on the nature of the openness of the process to the population and the need for an understanding of the expectations of the people.
An independent judicial system: Court can be very powerful in a democracy, and in many ways it is the hand that interprets and enforces the rules that exist in the constitution.
The power of the presidency: All modern societies must have a chief executive who is able to bear the responsibility of government, ranging from the simple administration of a program to mobilize the armed forces to defend the country during the war.
The role of free media: That is closely linked to the public's right to know is a free media newspapers, radio and television networks that could investigate the running of the government and report it without fear of prosecution.
The role of interest groups: The government must pay attention to and empower the groups that exist in society both political parties and civic organizations in order to convey the will and demands of the people.
The public's right to know: In a democracy, the government should be open, meaning that ideas and decisions must be open for public testing carefully. Of course, not all government measures should be published, but the people have a right to know how their tax money is spent, whether efficient and effective law enforcement, and whether their elected representatives to act responsibly.
Protecting minority rights: If "democracy" is defined as the will of the majority, then one of the big problems is how minorities are treated. Minorities are not defined as people who choose an opponent from the party that won the elections, but in those that are clearly different from the majority for reasons of race, religion, or to-etnisan.
Civilian control over the military: In a democracy, the military must not only be under the control of civilian authorities fully, but he also must have a culture that affirms that the army's role is as a servant rather than the public authorities.
Democracy in Indonesia
In the political history of Indonesia, we know at least four kinds of democracy: government of the revolution democratic, parliamentary democracy (repsentatif democracy), democracy guided (guided democracy), and democracy Pancasila (Pancasila democracy) (Gaffar, 2004: 10).
a. Liberal democracy (government of the revolution) (1945-1949)
The organizers state in the early period of independence has a very large commitment in realizing the political democracy in Indonesia. The revolution of democracy reign lasted from 1945 to 1949, there are some things that fundemental which is the foundation for democracy in Indonesia this period, namely:
Political thorough franchise. The forming state, already from the beginning committed greatly to democracy, so when independence was taken, all citizens who are considered adults have political rights are equal, without any discrimination that comes from race, religion, ethnicity, and regionalism.
President who constitutionally is likely to be a dictator, his power is limited when the Central Indonesian National Committee (KNIP) was formed to replace the parliamentary.
By edict Vice President, then it is possible the formation of a political party, which later became the foundation stone for the party system in Indonesia for the later period in our political history
The second period of government of Indonesia is 1950 to 1959, using the Constitution Temporary (Provisional Constitution) as a constitutional basis. During this period of government called parliamentary government, because at this time is the triumph of the parliament in the political history of Indonesia before the Reformation. That period may be referred to as "Representative / Participatory Democracy".
The period of Parliamentary Democracy was the era of democracy in Indonesia, almost all of the elements of democracy can be found in its manifestations in political life in Indonesia.
people's representative assembly or parliament plays a role that is very high in the political process running. Embodiments of parliamentary power is shown by the number of vote of no confidence to the government that led to the cabinet must resign.
accountability of office holders and politicians in general is very high. This can happen because the functioning of parliament and also a number of mass media as a means of social control.
the life of the party can be said to obtain a significant opportunity to develop optimally. In this period, Indonesia embraced multi-party system (Multy patry system). There are nearly 40 political parties formed with a very high degree of autonomy in the recruitment process, either officials or party leaders and supporters.
Election though only executed one time in 1955, but the General Election is actually implemented with democratic principles.
society in general can feel that their basic rights are not reduced at all, though not all citizens can exploit to the maximum.
during the reign of parlemeter, regions gained considerable autonomy, even the broadest autonomy with the principle of decentralization as a cornerstone to stand in regulating the relations of power between central government and regional governments.
c. Guided Democracy (1959-1965)
Since the end of the elections of 1955, the President has shown symptoms of displeasure to political parties. It happened because the political parties are very oriented toward the interests of its own ideology and less attention to the overall interests of national politics.
Guided democracy is a total reversal of the political processes that are running at the time of parliamentary democracy. The so-called democracy is nothing but a manifestation of the will of the president in order to place himself as the only one of the most powerful institution in Indonesia. The main characteristics of politics in the era of Guided Democracy is:
A blurring of the party system. The presence of political parties, not to prepare within the framework of political contestation to fill political positions in government (since the General Election was never executed), but more of a supporting element of the pull anatara the President, the Army and the Communist Party of Indonesia.
With the DPR-GR is formed, the role of the legislature in the national political system becomes increasingly weaker. For DPR-GR then more a political instrument of the President.
Basic human rights became very weak. Soekarno easily get rid of political opponents are not in accordance with the policies or have the courage to oppose it.
Guided Democracy is the peak period of the spirit of anti-freedom of the press. A number of newspapers and magazines were banned by Sukarno.
Centralization of power increasingly dominant in the relationship between the central government to local government. The regions have limited autonomy.
Understanding Democracy in Indonesia
d. Pancasila democracy (democracy in the New Order administration)
A new era in government began after a short transition period, ie between 1965 samapai 1968, when General Suharto was elected President of the Republic of Indonesia. Later known as the era of the New Order.
New Order gave new hope, especially with regard to political changes, from authoritarian to the period under Sukarno's Guided Democracy becomes more democratic. But the reality is not as expected, substitute authoritarian president turned out to be an authoritarian, too.
There are several indicators of democracy which is used during labeled Pancasila democracy, namely:
Rotation of executive power is virtually almost never happens. Except as contained in the lower ranks, such as governors, regents / mayors, district and village heads. Even if there is a change, during the New Order government only occurred in the vice president, while the government has essentially remained the same.
Political recruitment closed. Political recruitment is the process of filling political positions in the misappropriation of state government. This includes executive positions (President accompanied by cabinet ministers), legislative (MPR, DPR, DPRD, Level I, Level II DPRD), and other institutions of higher positions.
General elections. In the reign of the New Order, the General Election has been held six times, with regular frequency, ie every five years. However, if we observe the quality of general elections in Indonesia can be summed up very far from the spirit of democracy.
Basic human rights. This issue is also still a very complicated thing. It's not a secret anymore, that the international community is often closely related to the political highlight implementation issues of human rights. As a matter of freedom of the press and freedom of expression.